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MWANZA CITY COUNCIL
GENERAL OVERVIEW, 2004/2005
I. Vision and Mission of Mwanza City
Vision: The development of Mwanza City should be people centred with the main
objective of engendering wealth and sharing it equitably within the society. To
achieve this, the City has to ensure that there is good governance and the rule of
law to create equal opportunities for all residents to achieve their maximum
Mission: Mwanza City Council intends to build capacity for its residents through
provision of services that meet requirements of females and males and children by
using the available resources and taking into account environmental issues and
promoting good governance through community participation.
Mwanza City is located on the southern shores of Lake Victoria in Northwest
Tanzania. It covers an area of 1325km2 of which 425 is dry land and 900km2 is
covered by water. Of the 425km2 dry land area, approximately 86.8Km2 is
urbanized while the remaining areas consist of forested land, valleys, cultivated
plains, grassy and undulating rocky hill areas.
2.Climate and Physical setting
Mwanza City lies at an altitude of 1,140 metres above the sea level. Mean
temperature ranges between 25.7OC and 30.2OC in hot season and 15.4oC and
18.6OC in the cooler months.
The City experiences between 700 and 1000mm of rainfall per year falling in
two fairly distinct seasons i.e. between the months of October and December
and between February and May.
The City is characterised by gently undulating granites and granodiorite
physiography with isolated hill masses and rock inselbergs. It is also
characterised by well-drained sandy loamy soil generated from course grained
cretaceous. The vegetation cover is typical savannah with scattered tall trees
and tall grass.
There are 25 hectares of Land in Ilemela district and 21 hectares at Nyamagana
district which are suitable for irrigation.
Mwanza town was founded in 1892 as a regional Administration and
Commercial Centre to control mainly export production of the cotton growing
areas in the Lake Victoria Zone. In 1978 Mwanza obtained the status of
Municipality in line with the local government structure established in 1972. In
2000, Mwanza was further promoted to a City status. Currently there are two
cities another being Dar Es Salaam.
Mwanza City is comprised of two Districts, namely Nyamagana & Ilemela. There
are also two Divisions and 21 Wards. These Wards are:
Rural wards –Ilemela (Sangabuye, Bugogwa, Ilemela, Buswelu)
– Nyamagana (Igoma, Buhongwa and Mkolani).
Urban wards: Ilemela – (Kirumba, Kitangiri, Nyamanoro, Pansiasi, Nyakato)
-Nyamagana- ( Pamba, Isamilo, Mkuyuni, Nyamagana, Mbugani,
Administratively, the City Council is run by the Councillors under the
leadership of Lord Mayor. However, the day-to-day administration of the City is
done by the City Director who is assisted by Heads of departments – and
sections. At the Ward level there are Ward Executive Officers who are under the
The City has 9 Departments: Engineering, Urban Planning, Economic and
Trade, Community Development, Health Department, Finance, Manpower
Development, Co-operative and Agriculture and Education and Culture.
There are also two advisory units to the City Director namely, Internal Auditing
and Legal Services.
According to the 2002 National Census, Mwanza City has a total of 476,646
(Nyamagana District 210,735 and Ilemela 265, 911). The current population is
estimated to be just above half a million people with an annual natural growth
rate of 3.2% and rural to urban immigration almost 8%(National Population
Causes 2002). The population density is 134 people per sq. km, being the
second in the country after Dar es salaam.
The population distribution in the two districts of Mwanza is as shown below:
Population distribution at Nyamagana District (Chart below)
Male Female Total House
1.Mkuyuni Urban 6,644 6,699 13,343 3,416 3.9
2 Nyamanoro Urban 20,853 21,878 13,343 9,647 4.4
3.Igogo Urban 14,682 13,888 42,731 7,289 3.9
4.Pamba Urban 11,718 11,828 28,570 5,130 4.6
5. Nyamagana Urban 3,091 2,760 23,546 1,236 4.7
6. Mirongo Urban 2,700 2,632 5,851 1,109 4.8
7.Mbugani Urban 19,004 18,518 5,332 9,111 4.1
8.Isamilo Urban 8,831 9.085 37,522 4,096 4.4
9.Kirumba Urban 10,695 10,947 17,916 4,989 4.3
10.Kitangiri Urban 7,098 7,184 21,642 3,115 4.6
District Total 105,316 105,419 210,735 49,138 4.3
Population distribution at Ilemela District (Chart below).
Male Female Total Household
1. Pasiansi Urban 12,6261 12,,684 25,310 5,401 4.7
2. Butimba Urban 16,812 14,297 31,109 6,287 4.9
3. Nyakato Urban 40,901 41,480 82,381 17,410 4.7
4.Igoma Mixed 14,117 14,675 28,792 6,150 4.7
Rural 4,445 4,490 8,935 1,536 5.8
6. Bugogwa Rural 13,664 13,692 27,356 4,773 5.7
7. Ilemela Mixed 11,936 11,928 23,864 4,922 4.8
8. Mkolani Rural 8,436 8,506 16, 942 3,120 5.4
Rural 4,791 5,064 9,855 1,708 5.8
Rural 5,643 5,724 11, 367 2,042 5.6
Total 133,371 132,540 265,911 53,349 5.0
The majority of Mwanza people are self-employed. According to 1998 Mwanza
Environmental profile report (pg.3), 4% of people were self-employed, 32
employed and 27% unemployed. Most of the employed people work in the
service sector, while those who are self-employed are involved in petty trade,
tilling land, micro-fishing activities etc. The current figure of the employment in
the City (Employed and Self employed) stands at about 50%. The average per
capita income is about US$21 per month.
2.0 SECTORAL ISSUES
2.1 Housing and Informal settlements
Housing in Mwanza City can be divided into two categories. One is housing in
the planned and surveyed areas and second is in the unplanned (squatter)
The current statistics show that the City has about 50,000 housing units out of
which 60% are built in the unplanned areas.
Planned settlements in Mwanza:
Zone O: Central area
Zone A: Capripoint, Isamilo
Zone B: Bwiru and Nyakato block F and G
Zone C: Nyakato, Nyegezi, Nyamanoro, Ilemela, Kiseke, Kiloleli and Pasiansi.
Zone D: Other planned areas ( Not much developed).
Zone E: Unplanned settlements( Igogo, Bugarika, Mabatini, Butimba,
Unplanned settlements accommodate about 70 of the City population.
Unplanned settlements are characterised by:
• High congestion of buildings
• Poor accessibility
• Lack of physical infrastructures like electricity, roads, and telephones as well
as public facilities like dispensaries, open spaces etc.
• Inadequate hygienic services like toilets, disposal of solid wastes etc.
2.1.1 THE 3500 HOUSING PLOTS PROJECT
The 3500 housing plots is a new project that was initiated by the City
Council as a means of solving the building plots problem in the City.
The project started by planning the selected sites, surveying plots in these
areas by using the private companies (3 sites) and office staff (one area).
These sites are Buswelu (by offices staff), Nyegezi, Kiseke and Nyamhongolo.
After having 3500 plots, the City Council made an application to the
Ministry of Lands and Human Settlements Development to get money to pay
compensation and provide basic infrastructure (Gravel roads and culverts).
The Ministry agreed this application and facilitated the Council with Tshs.
830 Million (about U$ 830,000).
After receiving the loan, the City Council started with Buswelu which is
planned as a District Centre where facilities like Government District
Headquters, District Hospital, Municipal Hall, Stadium, etc. have been
included in this plan. Land in this area was sold at a rate of Tshs. 800/m2
and the average price of these plots were as follows: High density
Tshs.400,000; Medium density Tshs. 600,000 and low Density Tshs
800,000. Plots for public buildings were sold at an average price of Tshs. 5.5
All 1300 plots at Buswelu area were sold within the first two weeks of the
first month and the demand remains very high.
The office is on preparation to start this exercise at Nyegezi after finishing
the land compensation exercise to be followed with Nyamhongolo, Kiseke
and Buswelu phase 2.
The project’s impact.
The project has opened a new room for easy availability of plots in the City.
It is a millestone in a City’s efforts to fight invasion of hills by squatters and
also a relief to the City’s image to people who visit Mwanza.
Challenges to the Project
The project is facing the following problems/challenges:
i. Availability of water:
Water component was not included in the project write-up. This
component would increase the project’s costs hence hike the price of
Problem: People who have bought plots in these areas will face this
problem for a long time if some remedial measures are not taken now.
Note: Water supply assistance to these housing areas is a key aspect
to make this project successful. The City Council is looking for
donors/ friends who can supports it in a providing this important
The project design did not consider the sanitation aspect in detail. The
plan dwelt on onsite household liquid wastes disposal instead of
Central Sewer System.
Note: The project needs to address the issue of sanitation properly.
The City Council is struggling to see that this element is included in
its project areas by requesting donors and other Urban development
facilitators to help it to reach this end.
iii.Housing finance facility
Many residents who bought plots in these housing areas will depend
on personal savings to develop them. Housing finance facility in
Mwanza is almost absent, hence only very few people can approach
commercial banks which charge very high interest rate for their loan
money for credit.
Note: There is a need of having a housing finance facility in Mwanza.
The City Council asks Institutions which are dealing with this kind of
business to come and open branches in Mwanza.
2. SQUATTER UPGRADING
Many people in Mwanza (70%) live in the unplanned settlements. These
settlements, apart from lacking basic facilities like roads, schools and water,
some of them are located at very steep rocky hills that reaching them and
providing basic sanitation systems becomes very difficult.
The Council is in a process of identifying some settlements which can be
planned, surveyed and be provided with basic services and facilities.
Two settlements (Ibungilo and Isamilo juu) have once been studied and
included in the City upgrading programme, but the implementation of these
schemes were curtailed by financial constraints.
Currently the office has opted to select small portions of settlements where
through participatory process they are provided with access roads/foot
paths before being surveyed and individuals be issued title deeds.
This process has started with part of Igogo in Igogo ward, Isegeng’he in
Nyakato ward and Igoma Mlimani in Igoma Ward and Mabatini Polisi in
Mbugani Ward. The process in Mecco Mashariki in Nyakato Ward is a bit
different as people in this area preferred to begin with surveying their
individual plots through which roads will be identified and demarcated.
The biggest challenge in the upgrading project is the availability of money
for that purpose. In the places where we began with, people were mobilized
themselves to contribute some money for that purpose at a rate of between
Tshs. 30,000 (US $30) and Tshs. 50,000(US$50). However this amount is
very little to meet the basic needs of the exercise.
For example, during the CBEM project under DANIDA, such kind of
upgrading projects were initiated in Igogo and Pamba Wards where the
donor contributed some technical expertise and building materials in the
access road project where the community contributed land and labor.
Availability of such kind of support can very much reduce the upgrading
burden that the Council faces.
HENCE: Availability of technical and financial support can help the City
Council to meet its target of upgrading squatter settlements and effect
resettlement for settlements which are located at dangerous/difficult
NB: (CBEM is Capacity Building for Environmental Management; DANIDA is Danish
International Development Agency).
2. Informal sector
Informal sector in Mwanza refers to micro-enterprises that are not registered
and do not have business licences. These include selling old clothes, vegetables
(at open spaces), carpentry, selling small items like cosmetics, shoes etc. In all
occasions, the size of these businesses is so small that paying for a trade
licence leads to the unaffordable situation.
In recognition of the contribution of this sector to the economy (employment),
Mwanza City Council, in consultation with the traders themselves identified
and established markets/working places of informal sector businesses in
Mwanza. Spaces planned for the petty traders, commonly known as ‘Machinga’
are as follows:
Location Number of
Number of people
9 214 214
Mabatini 3 84 84
7 140 140
Kiloleli market 21 594 594
Total 40 1,032 1,032
Apart from these, the City Council has also identified locations for other
activities as follows:
Location Type of business No. of Working
No. of people to
Sabasaba Timber business 180 180
Timber business 50 50
Nyakato KK Garages 20 20
Nyegezi Block C Timber business 120 120
Total 370 370
In all the cases, the City Council is targeting the Micro entrepreneurs who can’t
afford to acquire ordinary plots from the land office due to the small nature of
2.3.1 . Hearth infrastructure.
Mwanza City has 7 hospitals lead by the Bugando Medical Centre – a referral hospital
and 220 health centers.
Note: List of health infrastructure (below)
Name Ownership Operational Total
Government Private Government Private
Hospital 1 3 1 2 7
Health center 3 6 3 3 15
Dispensary 21 41 19 10 91
Clinics 3 0 0 15 18
Services out of health
12 22 0 0 34
Services through the postal
33 28 0 0 61
Institutions of Training 0 1 0 0 1
Total 73 101 23 30 227
2.3.2 Solid Wastes Management and Street Cleaning
Economic activities are generating substantial quantities of solid waste, Present
it is estimated that the rate of solid waste generation in the City is between 0.6
– 0.75 kg per capital per day. Thus the amount of solid waste from domestic,
institutional and commercial activities is estimated at about 375, 000-kg day.
Industrial solid waste, largely from factories and industries, is assumed to be in
the region of 500,000 kg 1 day. On a daily basis therefore, about 875,000kg of
solid waste are generated in the Mwanza City.
The present capacity of Mwanza City council to manage solid waste is still very
limited. The MCC operates a refuse collection fleet made up of only 4 operating
trucks, which could only collect around 30 percent of the total solid waste from
residential, institutional and commercial premises and mostly within the
central Business District areas, The waste collected is disposed of at an
inadequately managed dumpsite in the Nyakato area, which is about of 8km
from the central area. The rest (70) percent) of the daily solid waste generated
are, in most cases is left uncollected and form heaps of rotting garbage all over
Mwanza. During the rainy season, uncollected refuse is washed away and
through stomata drains, dumped into Lake Victoria.
Privatization of Solid Wastes collection and street cleaning
The City Council is all the time trying to find solution to the problem of solid
wastes management. Recently, the City Council has established partnerships
with Community Based Organizations (CBOs) and a Private Company to clean
and deal with solid wastes in the City. Thanks to the International Labour
Organization for its support to build capacity of CBOs, NGOs and Private
Companies which are involved in this sector in Mwanza City.
TheCBOs and a Company that are commissioned to do the job are paid by the
City Council at a rate of Tshs. 1600 per 300m length of cleaned tarmac road
daily. Cleaning of the unpaved streets is done by these organizations by
charging residents of respective locations Tsh. 400 per month for residential
premises and about Tshs. 4000 and above per month for business premises.
The decision to privatize the solid wastes collection and street cleaning has
provided employment opportunities to among the City residents especially
women and brought a big improvement on the image of the City.
While each CBOs employs about 30 people, a company employs more than 100
people a month to take care of these activities.
Almost all tarmac roads with their storm water drains are cleaned regularly and
the filthy nature of these areas has very much been reduced. In the National
Clean City/Municipality Competition which is organized by the Ministry of
Health, the City jumped from the 12th position in 2003 to 3rd position in 2004.
The City looks forward to maintain this position or move to higher position due
to its own commitment in this issue.
Note: While the CBOs and a Company are facing shortage of working tools, the
City Council is constrained with resources to buy enough trucks and trailers
for ferrying garbage to its landfill site located at Buhongwa in the city.
2.3.3 Liquid Waste.
Most industries operating in Mwanza have limited wastewater treatment
facilities. Some industries have installed small treatment units but these are
generally of limited capacity, and the closeness to the lakeshore leads to the
discharge of raw or semi – treated wastewater directly into Lake Victoria.
The total industrial effluent generation in Mwanza is estimated to be about
6,500m3 per day. Most garages lack oil and grease traps, hence oil and grease
are washed off into the Lake Victoria especially during heavy rains. In this
regard, even some fish processing industries discharge residues and remains
into the Lake apart from the poor treatment of wastes that are taken to the
dump sites. In addition, there is a good number of people who have no efficient
toilets at the squatter settlements who use storm water to flush their toilets
where wastes find their way to the Lake.
Thanks to the Mwanza Urban Water and Sanitation Authority (MUWASA) for
completing the Pasiansi (Sabasaba) oxidation ponds and their plans to
construct other oxidation ponds at Igoma and Mkuyuni areas in the City.
2.4.1 Primary schools
Mwanza City has a total of 155 Primary Schools, out of which 139 are
Government owned and 16 are private owned. It has 1,552 primary teachers of
whom 1,310 are teaching Primary Government schools and 242 are teaching
Private primary schools. There are 94,530 pupils of whom 90,355 are studying
at Government schools and 4,175 are studying at Private schools.
Note: Primary schools ownership(Chart below):
Item Owned by The
Privately owned Total
Primary schools 139 16 155
1,568 242 1,810
Pupils 97109 4,654 101,763
2.4.2 Nursery Schools
Mwanza City has got 203 nursery schools of which 79 are registered and 124
are not yet registered. Private people owns 40 nursery schools and the
government owns 39
2.4.3 Adult Education
There are 158 centers for Adult education in the city. 87 of them are
operating while 71 are not operating. Total adults enrolled are 221,510 of which
106,418 are male and 115,092 are female. Those who can read and write are
211,330 are of which 102,432 are male and 108,898 are female, and those who
can not read and write are 10,665 in which 3,986 are male and 6,194 are
female. Out of those who can not read and write, 6,313 (2,250 male and 4,063
female) are enrolled for repetition and 3,867 (1,736 male and 2,131 female) not
4. Secondary schools.
Mwanza City has a total of 20 Secondary Schools, out of which 10 are Government
owned and 8 are private owned. It has 300 teachers of whom 165 are teaching
Government schools and 135 are teaching Private schools. There are 6285
students of whom 2412 are studying at Government schools and 3873 are
studying at Private schools.
Note: Secondary schools ownership (Chart below).
Secondary Schools Owned by
‘O’ level only 6 4 10
‘A’ level only 0 0 0
Both ‘O’ & ‘A’ level 4 3 7
Total 10 7 17
There are about 60 different type of industries in Mwanza: Fish processing (6);
cotton seed oil industries (6); Breweries (1), soft drink factory (1) Bakeries &
Biscuits ( 100); medium & small milling machines; timber industries; garages;
fabricating workshops; ginneries; foam & plastic industries; soap factories;
quarry sites & animal food industries.
This number is expected to increase due to the Government’s efforts to build
good roads and the rapid growth of the information Technology sector.
2.5.1 Fish Industries:
Most of the six fish industries that are present in Mwanza today have been
established in the 1990s.These include Mwanza Fishing, Nile Perch, TFP, Vic
Fish, Tan Perch and Omega.
The industrial areas in Mwanza are Mwanza South, Igogo, Nyakato, Ilemela &
Mkuyuni. Areas earmarked for future Industrial expansion: are Igoma (Eastern
Corridor), Mkolani (Southern corridor) and Mhonze/Igombe (Northern corridor).
Fish trade is the mainstay of the Lake Region’s Economy.
2.5.2 Other medium size Industries:
These include Mwatex ( East Africa’s second biggest textile mill); – Nyanza
Bottling; -Tanzania oxygen LTD,;-Nyakato Steel Mills.
Fishing in Lake Victoria has a long historical background. However, the
introduction of Nile perch or lattes niloticus to the Lake has changed both the
social and economic nature of the sector. Today fishing is done mainly for
commercial purposes, contrary to the traditional fishing which focused to
Nile perch first appeared in Lake Victoria in the late 1950s. The fish is locally
known as Mbuta or Sangara. Fishery experts say it can grow to two metres in
length and weigh 200 kg.
The decline of cotton production, after the decline of the crop’s price on the
world market and the death of co- operative societies in Mwanza in early 1990s,
had changed the social economic development of the region. The emergence of
the Nile Perch trade has created new opportunities for development in the
According to available statistics from the fish processing plants in Mwanza and
Musoma towns, the fish industry has created direct employment for over 8,000
locals and outsiders and indirectly employed about 300,000 others.
At the same time, an estimated three million people living around Lake Victoria
in Mwanza,Mara and Kagera regions have been also benefiting from the Nile
perch trade ( popularly known as marine gold) in one way or another, causing
the rapid growth of social and economic activities in the region.
There are also about 52,000 fishermen on the Tanzanian side of Lake Victoria
who benefit directly from Nile perch.
Sources indicate that in 1999/2000, local fishermen earned Tsh 182 million ( $
182,000) daily from selling their catch to the fish processing plants.
It is also estimated that local fishermen earn about Tsh 65.5 billion ($ 65.5
million) annually from the sale of Nile perch to 12 fish processing plants that
have sprung up around the lake. There are chances that, these earnings may
rise by 40 per cent depending on market prices and the availability of the fish
(Nile perch) from the Lake.
Trade in the fish contributes about Tshs 1.7 billion ($ 1.7 Million) annually in
levies to the Mwanza City Council alone.
According to the 2001 economic development report issued by the Regional
commissioner, Mwanza City Council received about Tshs 1.3 billion ($1.3
million) in fish levy from the sale of fresh Nile perch processed by the fish
plants between April and December 2001.
Earnings for the central government in taxes and royalty from exportation of
Nile perch fillets were estimated at Tshs 10 billion ($ 10 million) annually.
Tanzania produces about 220,000 tones of fresh and frozen fillets for export
annually worth Tshs 77 billion ($77 million).
About 80 per cent of the total production of Nile perch fillets are exported to
Europe, while the rest is sold to the Asian market.
NOTE: Per Capital Income
The per capital income of Mwanza residents stands at an average is US
$21 per month.
2.6.1 Timber Industries.
Mwanza city center has about 14 timber industries, which produces timbers of
different sizes. The timber processed includes pines, mininga and mitundu
from outside Mwanza City. About 4346.8 cubic meter of timbers are processed
yearly in Nyamagana and Ilemela Districts. The actual demands of timber in
both Districts are 7,459.6 cubic meters of which Nyamagana District demands
only 2,600.8 cubic meters and Ilemela District requires 4,858.8 cubic meters of
timbers. There are 43-employed causals laborers. There are also about 57
Businessmen who are dealing with timber selling in the city.
2.6.2 Natural forests (Ngitiri)
The City has a land area coverage of 12,860 hectare remarked for natural
forest, of which Nyamagana District processes 4,610 Hectares of land and
Ilemela District processes 8,250 hectare of land.
Number of trees planted in both Nyamagana and Ilemela Districts are
27,676,000 trees, of which Nyamagana District has 9,298,000 trees and
Ilemela District has18,378,000 trees.
2.6.3 Other forest products
Apart from timbers, forests provide charcoal, wax, honey, firewood, fruits, roots
and leaves. These products provides energy, food, medicine and raw materials.
3. Bee keeping
Mwanza City has 9 bee keeping projects located at 9 villages. The beekeepers
use local modern and drum hives to produce bee products. There are 27 local
hives, 44 modern hives and 38 drum hives. Bee keeping products includes
honey, wax, royal jelly, pollen and propols. Part of the produces is sold in Mara
and Kagera region in Tanzania and exported in Kenya and Uganda.
Livestock available in Mwanza City includes; Goats, sheep, cows, pigs, hens’
indigenous bread, Broilers, jayerns and donkeys. Most of the urban-based
wards are practicing poultry farming and zero grazing livestock keeping. The
city is enjoying livestock products such as milk, eggs, cattle meat and skins.
There are 1,420 milked cows at Nyamagana District and 2,359 at Ilemela.
Liters of milk produced at Nyamagana District are 340,800 of which 272,640
liters are sold. Ilemela District produces 566,160 liters of milk and sold
452,928 liters. Processed milk (both fresh and yogurt) for the whole city is
1,770 liters and is sold at a price of Tshs 500/= per liter
Eggs production at Nyamagana District estimated at 225,000trays and for
Ilemela District eggs production is estimated at 223,200 trays of eggs a year
Nyamagana District produces 1,814 PCs cattle Hides and skins while Ilemela
District produces 14 PCs of cattle hides and skins
There are 386 trained livestock keepers at Nyamagana District and 559 at
The livestock facilities available in Nyamagana and Ilemela Districts include 7
cattle dips. These are used to wash and control livestock east -coast fever
disease. The location of cattle dips are as follows:-
Nyamagana District: – 1 cattle dip located at Lwanhima in Buhongwa ward,
Ilemela District: – 6 cattle dips located at Igumamoyo, Sangabuye,
Nyamwilolelwa, Igombe ,Nyamongholo and Buswelu villages. All these cattle
dips are under rehabilitation process.
Problems facing Livestock keepers
• Inadequate skills and knowledge on improved livestock keeping
• Inadequate supplies of livestock antibiotics and acracides
• Insufficient Veterinery Doctors
• Lack of working cattle dips
• Inadequate market for livestock products
Future Prospects Plans
1. Training livestock keepers on improved livestock keeping.
1. Provision of mobile livestock treatment
2. Facilitating the building of cattle and poultry shelters.
3. Coordinating and supervise the construction of shallow wells.
Rehabilitation and Construction of new cattle dips especially in Ilemela District.
Mwanza is one of the unique destinations on the Tanzania that has yet to be
discovered by many. It is a land of much wonder hobbling an unparalleled
diversity of Fauna, Flora and many natural features. The wonders of rocks, the
scenery, topography and very friendly people harbor the growth of excellent
cultural tourism beach holidays, game hunting, infrastructure ventures,
historical and archaeological ventures- and certainly the best wildlife
photographic safaris on the continent. The tourism industry (if at all is properly
managed provides excellent investment opportunities in construction and
management of hotels. Lodges and restaurants, infrastructure ventures
aviation projects, training institutions, tour operations, travel agencies and
According to the national industry’s mission statement that forms the basis of
the tourism policy is to develop sustainable quality tourism that is ecologically
friendly to the conservation and restoration of the environment and its people’s
culture. In so doing the industry seeks to maximize the net gains that emanate
from the various tourism activities. It is for this reason that the government is
now highly concerned with the improvement of the infrastructure quality and
diversity, ease of destination entry formalities, relaxation of foreign exchange
regulations and controls, revision of applicable taxes and maintenance of
peace, stability and security. As a stimulant, the private sector is increasingly
investing in the various tourist plants, improvement of destination access from
major sources and within marketing promotion and training of the human
resource. Off-course the government has a lot to do in Mwanza so as to
stimulates more tourists and investors in the tourist industry.
2.8.1 Tourist Attractions In Mwanza
• The Bujora Museum is where Sukuma , cultural history is preserved
• The lake itself and naturally arranged rocks set on top of each other.
• It is an historical place where the earliest 18th century explores visited in the
research to find the source of River Nile.
• The historical museums in the Region such as Sanane project in Western port
of Mwanza City at Nyamagana.
• The game reserves such as Sanane Island that covers 95 hectares receives
many tourists a year. Some of the tourists of this game reserve are students,
Researchers from Europe and America, and Local tourist. Sanane Island game
reserve is unique located within Lake Victoria – a couple of nautically
kilometers from the Tilapia hotel.
2.8.2 Hotel Industry
Hotel industry in Mwanza of tourist calibre are still absent. Presently Tilapia
hotel seems to attract many foreigners, Mwanza Hotel is mainly used by
government officials and other local businessmen. Hotel Tilapia has 40 rooms
while Mwanza Hotel has 50 rooms. The daily occupancy rate is about 80%.
3. ECONOMIC INFRASTRUCTURE
Mwanza City is served with relatively satisfactory infrastructure such as
railway transport, air transport, marine transport, road network
communication net work and energy etc. It is a center where all
communications lines converge in the Lake-zone.
The City comprising of Nyamagana and Ilemela districts has 35.5 km of trunk
roads, 132 km of regional roads, 695.5 km of district roads which makes a total
of 861 km of road network.
Existing tarmac roads radiating from Mwanza City are as follows:
• Mwanza – Kisesa (Musoma road ) – 17 km
• Mwanza – Nyashishi (Shinyanga road) – 19 km
• Mwanza – Airport (Airport road) – 10 km
• There is a myriad of other tarmac roads network in the City totaling about 22
The tarmac roads can handle up vehicles with weight not exceeding 56 tons
while the gravel roads can handle up to 10 tone vehicles without problems.
The City is connected to Kenya and Uganda by Marine transport, which also
connects it to the regional capitals of Bukoba and Musoma. It has two major
ports; the South and the North ports owned by the Government parastatal
organisation known as National Ports Authority. The North port is the
passenger terminal, while the Southport is the cargo terminal. It has ten ships/
boats of which six are used to transport cargo and four are used for passengers
There are several small docking facilities owned by individuals and individual
companies who own small and medium sized boats. These include -Kamanga –
ferry, Kishimba, Kipeja and Kitana docking facilities.
There is also a boat assembling facility at Pasiansi in Ilemela district known as
Pansiasi Boat Yard.
Small boats, canoes and dhows owned by individuals, also dominate transport
in the Lake Victoria. They are used to carry people’s commodities such as
agricultural produces and for fishing.
3.3 Railway Transport
Mwanza City is at the railhead of the Mwanza – Dar es Salaam railway line
receiving at least three passenger trains per week; leave alone the continuous
fleet of Cargo trains which are almost daily.
3.4 Air Transport
Mwanza City is served with air transport daily. About 35 to 40 aircraft shuttle
at the single airport located in Ilemela district. The aircraft frequenting the
airport include of those passenger airlines such as ATCL, Air Express, Precision
Air and hired shuttle planes to various destinations including Nairobi.
There are also Cargo aircraft landing at the airport weekly. The Cargo planes
mainly come to carry fish fillet to Europe, the Middle East and other places of
3.5 Airport capacity.
The airports have a runway which can handle airplanes with weight up to 180
tons. The airport has two main good runways. The first one with 3.3 km while
the second has 3.0 km only.
The big aircraft landing at the airport include Boeing 737. The airport is busy
and it is planned soon to be upgraded to the status of an International Airport.
3.6 Communication Network
Mwanza City is endowed with reasonably good communication infrastructure.
Because of its economic importance in the Lake-zone and a good transport
system, many communication companies have opened offices in the City.
There are two radio stations in the City i.e. Radio Free Africa owned by Sahara
Communication and SAUT Radio owned by Roman Catholic Church.
There is one TV Station known as Star – TV that was opened in year 2000. It
uses satellite transmission and again it is owned by Sahara Communication.
The TV coverage is 90% in Mwanza region.
Land lines Telephones:
Telephone communication is supplied by TCCL for landlines that link the city
to the rest of the world.
The cellular phone companies operating in the City include VODACOM,
CELTEL, and MOBITEL. They are functional, effective and efficient.
Mwanza population has access to the following newspapers available daily and
few weekly supplies. These include: – Uhuru, Mzalendo, Daily news, Sunday
news, Nipashe, The guardian, Mwananchi, The African, Bingwa, East African,
Majira, Mtanzania, Hoja, Champion, Uwazi, Amani, Risasi, Jumatatu, Express,
Nyakati, Msemakweli, Shani, Sports, Mwanamke, Dimba, Dira, The family
mirror, Mwanasport, Cheka, Sunday nation, Daily nation, Standard, Kiu,
Ijumaa, Mzawa,and Msanii.
Mwanza City is supplied with electric power from the National Grid, which is
fairly stable. Nyamagana Wards mainly falls under the distribution network,
while only about 20% of Ilemela enjoy electricity supply.
The present use of electric power in the city is 14.47 MW of which 6.07 MW is
consumed domestically and 8.40 MW is supplied and consumed by industries.
The existing supply potential is enormous. The Problem however is the supply
gadgets, like poles, wire & metres etc.
4. INVESTMENT POTENTIALS IN MWANZA
Mwanza City center still have a potential areas of great investment
opportunities to invest or expand business / or development programs. The
following are areas of great investment: –
1.Agro – based industries:
Fruit canning/juice concentrates making.
This could be extracted from pineapples, orange and mangoes that are plenty
in the region though seasonal. Pineapples grow well in Geita, Bugando area
while oranges mainly found in Ukerewe and some parts of Sengerema. Mangoes
that are usually seasonal are found all over the region.
Investment in cold rooms could make it possible these fruits to be preserved
and stored during the peak period and canned throughout the year. That is the
same for production of juice concentrates which could be exported to countries
where it can be processed in sophisticated factories.
Production of double refined cooking oils.
Most of the existing oil mills produce semi – refined oils which are quite impure
and probably hazardous to human health. Only Voil and to some extent Nera
oil mill owned by Nyanza Co –operative Union produce double refined oil of
good quality. Their total capacity is low and have been unable to satisfy the
Tanzania market leave alone the export market. Raw material is cottonseed
plus the cotton seed cake left as by products from other oil mills. The cotton
seed cake is usually not well squeezed to extract all the oils.
The market for vegetable oil of this quality is certainly wide even in the
neighboring countries of Rwanda, Burundi, Uganda, Zaire and Kenya.
Hulling, grading and packing of paddy at large scale.
The region and the surrounding regions of Shinyanga and Mara together
produce substantial quantities of rice annually. But there has been no
significant effort to prepare the paddy in a professional manner for export.
Demand for paddy is obvious in neighboring countries and even in the middle
East. The kind of paddy/rice produced in these regions has a natural flavor
preferred by many consumers.
With a stretch of thousands of Kilometers along the Lake Victoria, and presence
of vast land for farming in Mwamashimba – Kwimba district; there is indeed
great potential for irrigation farming at commercial level. Agricultural experts
estimate that the yields from irrigation farming could meet one third of the
nation food requirement. Export possibilities of cash crops such as cotton,
paddy, horticultural products would increase
Due to presence of big herd of cattle in the whole Lake zone, and the
subsequent production of great numbers of hides & skins; the establishment
of a medium scale tannery would be very viable. Farmers do not have a proper
market for their hides and skins hitherto. They usually end up into frustrations
or sale them at give away prices to illegal buyers who smuggle these into
Milk Processing Plant
As said earlier, the region has numbers of herds of cattle. Milk production is
considerable but there is no established market for milk from the farmers. The
setting up of milk processing plants would be welcome.
2. Investment in Transport sector
Lake transportation business.
Uganda, Kenya and Tanzania border Lake Victoria. It has an area of
approximately 69,500 sq. km and lies about 1151 meters above sea level. Lake
Victoria is the second largest freshwater Lake in the world. The lake is
economically important to the surrounding region which has one of African
highest population densities.
However, despite sound consideration to the development of transport
corridors, the potential of Lake shipping has not been fully explored. There are
bright prospects for marine transport business on Lake Victoria due to
increased opportunities for trade and commerce business in the country, and
within the newly created common market of Southern Africa COMESA which
has increased cargo handling business, Mwanza town is a focal point of Lake
transport routes as a distribution centre for traffic to Bukoba, Kemondo bay,
Nyamirembe, Ukerewe island, Musoma, Kisumu and Port bell in both Kenya
and Uganda respectively.
The marine passenger local traffic market is dominated by TRC’s vessels which
accounts for 51% of motorized fleet of vessels. Passengers trips to various ports
are mostly business people who ferry goods to and from Mwanza. Currently
there are no vessels serving the International market of Kisumu and Portbell.
Air transport investment opportunity
The availability of daily flight from Mwanza to Dar by Air Tanzania (ATC) and
sometimes by Air Precision, has reduced the scramble for regular air transport
for passengers and goods at Mwanza airport.
The demand for air service however is still very strong due to the fact that
Mwanza is a major business centre in the whole Lakezone and neighbouring
countries of Uganda, Rwanda and DRC.
The over increasing mineral prospecting companies present pressure for air
transport as such companies need to do business faster.
The present plans to rehabilitate and expand Mwanza Airport run aways will
create an exceptional opportunity for the private sector to invest in “ Air
Investment in the telecommunication sector is possible and widely needed.
There are still great opportunities for establishing radio stations and more so
for TV stations.
Business in there in supply of modern telephones and systems, e- mail and
The Mwanza region economy is strong enough to support such innovations on
a sustainable basis.
Presently we have only Radio Free Africa, SAUT Radio owned by St. Augustine’s
University and staggering Mwanza Television. More strong TV and radio
stations are needed for information dissemination and advertisements.
4.4 Tourism & Hotels business
There are enormous possibilities in this sector that has not yet been fully
exploited. There are possibilities created by the present efforts to develop the
rich Sukuma culture at Bujora and the increased influx of tourists who come
from the northern circuit tourism corridor. These tourists normally wish to
extend their destination to Mwanza to enjoy the view of Lake Victoria.
There are however, no hotels in the region of tourist class – all are “Mediocre
Hotels” except for the Tilapia min hotel and Mwanza Hotel which are by almost
are accupied by International and Government Visitors.
4.5 Investment in Education Business
This is also a lucrative sector to invest in. Pressure for good schools from
primary to secondary schools up to the University level have been on the
increase. Most Tanzania’s have been sending their children to Kenya and
Uganda in search of high standard schools with strong education. Many
parents are willing to pay fees for their children at any cost. The investors could
establish several integrated schools covering from form one to form six. That
would certainly attract business. A University is also not ruled out.
4.6 Fishery based
Production of fishmeal
The eleven existing (9 active) fish filleting plants create an opportunity for
establishing a fishmeal plant to produce fishmeal from left overs, which are
normally thrown causing serious environmental problems in the area. A big
fishmeal plant is recommended because of great quantities of left overs
produced everyday from the fish filleting plants.
Moreover, the market for fish meal is plenty, both in Tanzania and Kenya. This
is exhibited by the high demand of fishmeal, which is presently produced on
small-scale bases by many entrepreneurs in Mwanza. Kenyans have placed
orders in advance up to a year. The fishmeal is being utilized to make animal
Large scale fishing
There is still much room for large scale fishing of Nile Perch in deep waters in
the Lake Victoria. Fisheries research centres estimates that up to 200,000 tons
of fish could be harvested annually without affecting the fish Biomass in the
Lake. Hitherto only half of it is harvested annually.
Fishing & export of sardines
There are great quantities of sardines in the Lake. Expert fishing and
processing of sardines in a hygienic way before vacuum packing in containers
could facilitate exports especially to Indonesia and Malaysia.
This is a fast growing sector. As said earlier, there are already about 46 foreign
companies in the region prospecting for Gold. There are also small scale miners
who own massive areas of Land with possible Gold deposits; The local small
scale miners (individuals & Companies), however lack requisite technologies for
prospecting; leave alone that for mining. The circumstances provide a wide
opportunity for joint ventures between them.
4.8 Manufacturer of waxed boxes
The fish filleting plants certainly need good packaging materials (boxes) for
exports. Waxed boxes are very suitable to serve this sector.
These boxes could also be used for packing of other products produced in the
Lake zone. It is a fact that when you plan for Mwanza you also incidentally
involve the whole Lake zone.
These are just a few areas to mention. Interested investors are welcome to
Mwanza City Council. For more information and advise contact the City
Director P.O. Box 1333, Mwanza Tanzania.
Tel. 0282501317, Fax 0282500785 and E-mail firstname.lastname@example.org or